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AS Unit 2 – Education

This category contains 9 posts

9) Ethnic groups differences in achievement in education

Achievement within education is very varied across cultures, with some such as Chinese and Indian students performing above the average, and African-Caribbean and Pakistani students performing well below average. There are many factors which can reduce a child from an ethnic backgrounds attainment: Social class and material factors – Minority ethnic children are more likely to … Continue reading

8) Underachievement of boys in Education

Educational achievements for both genders have increased over the years, however boys are being outperformed by girls. There are several reasons for this female dominance: The Women’s movement – Women’s movements have raised expectations and self-esteem of women considerably. Now women feel they can be more ambitious so are performing  better at school Growing ambition … Continue reading

7) Explaining social class differences in education and achievement

The working class consistently perform far worse in exams than the higher class pupils, this could be for many reasons as shown above  Sociologists have identified 3 groups into which all these factors affecting education can be placed: Material Factors Cultural Factors Factors within school Material Factors Material factors explain how social and economic situations … Continue reading

6) Feminist Perspective

Feminists’ say that education emasculates women, rather than the working class as marxists say. This is because of gender inequalities within school which lead to inequalities in society. Feminists say this happens in several ways: Gender stereotypes – reading schemes show gender differences, for example: girls are shown as more caring and are followers, whilst boys are … Continue reading

5) Assessing Functionalist and Marxist Perspectives

Similarities between Marxist and Functionalist Perspectives: Both think schools help legitimize social inequality Both are “macro” theories, so they look at the effect of education in the context of the rest of society, it can determine the rest of society with beliefs, values and skills. Both see education serving the needs of the workplace Both see education … Continue reading

4) Marxist Perspective

Marxist believe that the main purpose of education is to retain the social inequality within a capitalist society. French Marxist Althusser saw education as the man Ideological State apparatus. He said it is used to: Pass on ruling class ideology Select people for the different social classes, and equips them with attitudes and behaviour that … Continue reading

3) Functionalist Perspective

Functionalists see education as having 4 major roles: 1) Passing on societies beliefs and culture – Education is a functional prerequisite of society. Its passes on key values and beliefs via socialization, through both the national curriculum and the hidden curriculum. This helps creat social solidarity, it unites society in its morals and values. Criticism: Marxists … Continue reading

2) Education from 1988 onwards

1988 Education reform act This was an important policy, it made 6 key changes: Ofsted Inspections Tests at 7, 11 and 14 (SATs) Local management of school budget – reduced the control of schools and handed it over to local authorities Opting Out – schools that were maintained by grants City technical schools A national curriculum … Continue reading

1) Education in Britain untill 1988

The 1944 Education Act set up 3 types of secondary schools, this division is known as the Tripartite system. The 3 types were: Grammar – For more “intelligent” students who passed the 11+ test Technical – To teach skills useful in labour, for those who failed the 11+ test. Modern – For all students who failed … Continue reading