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Unit 2 – Education Glossary

Self-fulfilling Prophecy – The process whereby people act in response to prediction of the way they will behave, thus making the prediction come true.

Marketization – Where services, like health or education that were previously run by the state become subjected to competition and consumer choice

Meritocracy – where you gain the reward you deserve

Functional pre-requisite – the basic needs that must be met if society is to survive

Hidden curriculum – everything that is taught in school, but isn’t concerned with the actually knowledge and content on the National curriculum. For example, punctuality and obedience to authority

Social solidarity – integration of people in a society through shared values, morals, beliefs and a common culture.

Particularistic values – rules and values that give priority to personal relationships

Universalistic values – rules and values that apply equally to all members of society, regardless of who they are

The division of labour – division of a workforce into smaller, specialized roles

Ideological state apparatuses  – things which spread the dominant ideology and justify the power of the ruling class

Underachievement – the failure of people to fulfill their potential

Cultural deprivation  – the idea that some young people fail in education due to deficiencies in their home and families cultural background

Subculture – a smaller culture by a group within the main culture of a society

Restricted speech code – an informal, simple everyday language, sometime ungrammatical and with limited vocabulary

Elaborated speech code – formal language, with a much wider vocabulary than the restricted code

A Habitus – cultural framework and set ideas of a social class

Cultural capital – is the knowledge, langauge, manners, behaviour, tastes and values which gives middle and upper class students an advantage

Social capital – the social networks of influence and support people have

Education Action Zones – are areas of extreme deprivation and poverty, schools in these areas are given more money than other areas

Multicultural education – teaching about other ethnic cultures other than the majorities

Ethnocentrism – where you only see the world through your own culture, devaluing others

Elite – a small group holding great power in society

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